Zonke imidlalo

ULWAZI KAMASIPALA

  • Isendlalelo kanye Nomlando
  • Design
  • Ukukhetha Magnet
  • Ukwelashwa Kwendawo Engaphezulu
  • Amandla kazibuthe
  • I-Dimension Range, Usayizi nokubekezelela
  • Isimiso sokuphepha sokusebenza mathupha

Isendlalelo kanye Nomlando

Ozibuthe baphakade bayingxenye ebalulekile yokuphila kwanamuhla. Zitholakala ngaphakathi noma zisetshenziselwa ukukhiqiza cishe yonke into yesimanje namuhla. Ozibuthe bokuqala abangapheli bakhiqizwa emadwaleni endalo abizwa ngokuthi ama-lodestones. Lawa matshe aqala ukufundwa eminyakeni engu-2500 edlule ngamaShayina futhi kamuva amaGreki, athola itshe esifundazweni saseMagnetes, lapho le nto yaqanjwa khona. Kusukela lapho, izakhiwo zikazibuthe ziye zathuthukiswa kakhulu futhi izinto ezisetshenziswa kazibuthe zanamuhla zinamandla aphindwe ngamakhulu kunozibuthe basendulo. Igama elithi uzibuthe unomphela livela ekhonweni likazibuthe lokubamba ukushajwa kazibuthe okubangelwe ngemva kokususwa edivayisini yokuzibuthe. Imishini enjalo ingase ibe abanye omagnethi abangapheli abanamandla kazibuthe, omazibuthe kagesi noma amakhoyili ezintambo ashajwe isikhashana ngogesi. Ikhono lazo lokubamba amandla kazibuthe lizenza zibe usizo ekubambeni izinto endaweni, ukuguqula ugesi ube amandla ashukumisayo futhi okuphambene nalokho (amamotho namajeneretha), noma ukuphazamisa ezinye izinto ezilethwa eduze kwazo.


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Design

Ukusebenza okuphakeme kazibuthe kuwumsebenzi wobunjiniyela obungcono kazibuthe. Kumakhasimende adinga usizo lokuklama noma imiklamo eyinkimbinkimbi yesekethe, Iqembu le-QM ithimba lonjiniyela bezicelo abanolwazi kanye nonjiniyela bokuthengisa benkundla abanolwazi basemsebenzini wakho. QM onjiniyela basebenza namakhasimende ukuthuthukisa noma ukuqinisekisa imiklamo ekhona kanye nokuthuthukisa imiklamo yenoveli ekhiqiza imiphumela ekhethekile kazibuthe. QM isungule imiklamo kazibuthe enelungelo lobunikazi eletha amandla kazibuthe aqine ngokwedlulele, afanayo noma amise ngokukhethekile evamise ukuthatha indawo yemiklamo kazibuthe eqinile nengasebenzi kahle kanye nemiklamo kazibuthe ehlala njalo. Amakhasimende ayazethemba uma hey eletha umqondo oyinkimbinkimbi noma umbono omusha lowo QM izohlangabezana naleyo nselelo ngokudweba kusukela eminyakeni eyi-10 yobuchwepheshe obufakazelwe kazibuthe. QM unabantu, imikhiqizo kanye nobuchwepheshe obenza omazibuthe basebenze.


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Ukukhetha Magnet

Ukukhethwa kukazibuthe kuzo zonke izinhlelo zokusebenza kufanele kucabangele yonke imjikelezo kazibuthe nendawo ezungezile. Lapho i-Alnico ifaneleka, usayizi kazibuthe ungancishiswa uma ungaba uzibuthe ngemva kokuhlanganiswa kusekethe kazibuthe. Uma isetshenziswa ngokuzimela kwezinye izingxenye zesekethe, njengakuzinhlelo zokusebenza zokuphepha, ubude obusebenzayo kuya kububanzi besilinganiso (okuhlobene ne-permeance coefficient) kufanele ibe nkulu ngokwanele ukuze ibangele ukuthi uzibuthe usebenze ngaphezu kwedolo ejikeni layo lesibili le-quadrant demagnetization. Kuzinhlelo zokusebenza ezibucayi, ozibuthe be-Alnico bangase balinganiswe kunani elimisiwe lokuminyana kwereferensi.

Umkhiqizo ovela eceleni wokuphoqeka okuphansi ukuzwela emiphumeleni yokukhipha uzibuthe ngenxa yezinkambu kazibuthe zangaphandle, ukushaqeka, namazinga okushisa ohlelo lokusebenza. Ngezinhlelo zokusebenza ezibucayi, ozibuthe be-Alnico bangaqiniswa izinga lokushisa ukuze kuncishiswe le miphumela Kunezigaba ezine zozibuthe besimanje abezentengiselwano, ngalinye lisekelwe ekwakhekeni kwezinto ezibonakalayo. Ngaphakathi kwekilasi ngalinye kunomndeni wamabanga anezici zawo kazibuthe. Lawa makilasi ajwayelekile:

  • I-Neodymium Iron Boron
  • Samarium Cobalt
  • sobumba
  • Alnico

I-NdFeB ne-SmCo zihlangene zaziwa ngokuthi omazibuthe be-Rare Earth ngoba womabili akhiwe ngezinto eziphuma eqenjini lezakhi ze-Rare Earth. I-Neodymium Iron Boron (ukwakheka okujwayelekile okungu-Nd2Fe14B, okuvame ukufushaniswa ku-NdFeB) iyisengezo sakamuva kakhulu sokuthengisa emndenini wezinto zikazibuthe zesimanje. Emazingeni okushisa asekamelweni, omagnethi be-NdFeB bakhombisa izakhiwo eziphakeme kakhulu zazo zonke izinto zikazibuthe. I-Samarium Cobalt ikhiqizwa ngezingoma ezimbili: i-Sm1Co5 ne-Sm2Co17 - evame ukubizwa ngokuthi yizinhlobo ze-SmCo 1:5 noma i-SmCo 2:17. 2:17 izinhlobo, ezinamavelu aphezulu e-Hci, zinikeza ukuzinza okukhulu kwemvelo kunezinhlobo ezingu-1:5. I-Ceramic, eyaziwa nangokuthi i-Ferrite, omagnet (ukwakheka okujwayelekile kwe-BaFe2O3 noma i-SrFe2O3) benziwe ukuhweba kusukela ngawo-1950s futhi basaqhubeka nokusetshenziswa kakhulu namuhla ngenxa yezindleko zabo eziphansi. Uhlobo olukhethekile lukazibuthe we-Ceramic "Flexible" impahla, eyenziwe ngokuhlanganisa i-Ceramic powder kusibophezelo esivumelana nezimo. Ozibuthe be-Alnico (ukwakheka okujwayelekile i-Al-Ni-Co) bathengiswa ngeminyaka yawo-1930s futhi basasetshenziswa kakhulu nanamuhla.

Lezi zinto zithatha ububanzi bezakhiwo ezivumela inhlobonhlobo yezidingo zohlelo lokusebenza. Okulandelayo kuhloswe ngakho ukunikeza umbono obanzi kodwa osebenzayo wezici okufanele zicatshangelwe ekukhetheni impahla efanele, ibanga, umumo, nosayizi wezibuthe wohlelo oluthile. Ishadi elingezansi libonisa amanani ajwayelekile ezici ezibalulekile zamabanga akhethiwe wezinto ezihlukahlukene ukuze kuqhathaniswe. Lawa magugu azoxoxwa ngokuningiliziwe ezigabeni ezilandelayo.

Ukuqhathanisa Material Magnet

Material
Grade
Br
Hc
Hci
BH max
T max(Deg c)*
NdFeB
39H
12,800
12,300
21,000
40
150
USmCo
26
10,500
9,200
10,000
26
300
NdFeB
B10N
6,800
5,780
10,300
10
150
Alnico
5
12,500
640
640
5.5
540
sobumba
8
3,900
3,200
3,250
3.5
300
Flexible
1
1,500
1,380
1,380
0.6
100

* I-T max (izinga eliphezulu lokushisa elisebenzayo elisebenzayo) ingeyereferensi kuphela. Izinga lokushisa eliphezulu elisebenzayo lanoma yimuphi uzibuthe lincike kumjikelezo uzibuthe osebenza kuwo.


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Ukwelashwa Kwendawo Engaphezulu

Ozibuthe bangase badinge ukugcotshwa kuye ngokuthi isicelo bahloselwe sona. Ozibuthe bokwemboza bathuthukisa ukubukeka, ukumelana nokugqwala, ukuvikeleka ekugugeni futhi bangase bafanelekele ukusetshenziswa ezimeni ezihlanzekile zegumbi.
I-Samarium Cobalt, izinto ze-Alnico ziyamelana nokugqwala, futhi azidingi ukuthi zimbozwe ngokumelene nokugqwala. I-Alnico ifakwe kalula izimfanelo zezimonyo.
Ozibuthe be-NdFeB basengozini yokugqwala futhi bavame ukuvikelwa ngale ndlela. Kunezinhlobonhlobo zezingubo ezifanele odonsa unomphela, Akuzona zonke izinhlobo zokumboza ezizofaneleka kuzo zonke izinto ezibonakalayo noma ijometri kazibuthe, futhi ukukhetha kokugcina kuzoncika ekusetshenzisweni nakwindawo. Inketho eyengeziwe ukufaka uzibuthe endaweni ye-casing yangaphandle ukuvimbela ukugqwala nokulimala.

Ama-Coatings Atholakalayo

I-Su rface

esinemthombo

Ubukhulu (Amancanyana)

Color

Resistance

Ukususwa


1

Isiliva Grey

Ukuvikelwa Kwesikhashana

nickel

Ni+Ni

10-20

Isiliva elikhanyayo

Kuhle kakhulu ngokumelene Nomswakama

Ni+Cu+Ni

Zinc

Zn

8-20

Bright Blue

Okuhle Ngokuphikisana Nesifutho Sosawoti

C-Zn

Umbala Ocwebezelayo

Okuhle Ngokuphikisana Nesifutho Sosawoti

Tin

Ni+Cu+Sn

15-20

Silver

Superior Against Humidity

Gold

Ni+Cu+Au

10-20

Gold

Superior Against Humidity

Copper

Ni+Cu

10-20

Gold

Ukuvikelwa Kwesikhashana

I-Epoxy

I-Epoxy

15-25

Okumnyama, Okubomvu, Okumpunga

Kuhle Ngokumelene Nomswakama
I-Spray Spray

I-Ni+Cu+Epoxy

I-Zn+Epoxy

Chemical

Ni

10-20

Isiliva Grey

Kuhle Ngokumelene Nomswakama

I-Parylene

I-Parylene

5-20

Grey

Kuhle Ngokumelene Nomswakama, Isifutho Sikasawoti. Superior Against Solvents, Gases, Fungi and Bacteria.
 Igunyazwe yi-FDA.


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Amandla kazibuthe

Umazibuthe ongunaphakade ohlinzekwa ngaphansi kwezimo ezimbili, Owenziwe Zibuthe noma ongenawo uzibuthe, ngokuvamile awuphawulwa ukugqama kwawo. Uma umsebenzisi edinga, singamaka i-polarity ngezindlela okuvunyelwene ngazo. Lapho ehambisa i-oda, umsebenzisi kufanele azise isimo sokuhlinzeka futhi uma uphawu lwe-polarity ludingeka.

Inkambu kazibuthe kakazibuthe unomphela ihlobene nohlobo lwempahla kazibuthe unomphela namandla ayo angaphakathi okuphoqeleka. Uma uzibuthe udinga i-magnetization kanye ne-demagnetization, sicela uxhumane nathi futhi ucele ukwesekwa kwamasu.

Kunezindlela ezimbili zokwenza uzibuthe uzibuthe: inkambu ye-DC kanye ne-pulse magnetic field.

Kunezindlela ezintathu zokususa uzibuthe: ukukhishwa kazibuthe ngokushisa kuyinqubo ekhethekile. demagnetization emkhakheni we-AC. I-Demagnetization endaweni ye-DC. Lokhu kucela indawo kazibuthe enamandla kakhulu nekhono eliphezulu lokuqeda kazibuthe.

Umumo weJiyomethri kanye nesiqondiso samagnetization sikazibuthe unomphela: empeleni, sikhiqiza uzibuthe unomphela ngezimo ezihlukahlukene. Ngokuvamile, kuhlanganisa ibhulokhi, idiski, indandatho, ingxenye njll. Umdwebo onemininingwane wesiqondisindlela sokudonsa ungezansi:

Izikhombisi-ndlela zeMagnetization
(Imidwebo Ekhombisa Izikhombisi-ndlela Ezijwayelekile Zokuzenzela)

kuqondiswe ukushuba

i-axially oriented

i-axially oriented ngamasegimenti

i-multipole oriented laterally ebusweni obubodwa

ama-multipole oriented ngamasegimenti ku-diameter yangaphandle*

ama-multipole oriented ngamasegimenti ebusweni obubodwa

i-radially oriented *

kuqondiswe ngobubanzi *

ama-multipole oriented ngamasegmenti ku-diameter yangaphakathi*

konke kutholakala njengezinto ze-isotropic noma ze-anisotropic

*itholakala kuphela nge-isotropic kanye nezinto ezithile ze-anisotropic kuphela


i-radially oriented

i-diametrical oriented


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I-Dimension Range, Usayizi nokubekezelela

Ngaphandle kobukhulu obuqonde kumagnetization, ubukhulu bezibuthe obuhlala njalo abudluli u-50mm, obunqunyelwe inkambu yokuma kanye nemishini ye-sintering. Ubukhulu ohlangothini lwe-unmagnetization bufika ku-100mm.

Ukubekezelelana kuvame ukuthi +/-0.05 -- +/-0.10mm.

Phawula: Ezinye izimo zingenziwa ngokuya ngesampula yekhasimende noma ukuphrinta okuluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka

ring
I-Diameter yangaphandle
Ububanzi Inner
Ubukhulu
Isikhulu
100.00mm
95.00m
50.00mm
Minimum
3.80mm
1.20mm
0.50mm
disc
ububanzi
Ubukhulu
Isikhulu
100.00mm
50.00mm
Minimum
1.20mm
0.50mm
Block
ubude
ububanzi
Ubukhulu
Isikhulu 100.00mm
95.00mm
50.00mm
Minimum 3.80mm
1.20mm
0.50mm
Ingxenye ye-arc
Irediyasi yangaphandle
Irediyasi yangaphakathi
Ubukhulu
Isikhulu 75mm
65mm
50mm
Minimum 1.9mm
0.6mm
0.5mm



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Isimiso sokuphepha sokusebenza mathupha

1. Ozibuthe abangunaphakade abanamazibuthe aqinile baheha insimbi nezinye izinto kazibuthe ezibazungezile kakhulu. Ngaphansi kwesimo esivamile, opharetha osebenza ngesandla kufanele aqaphele kakhulu ukugwema noma yimuphi umonakalo. Ngenxa yamandla kazibuthe aqinile, uzibuthe omkhulu oseduze nawo uthatha ingozi yokulimala. Abantu bahlale becubungula lezi zidonsa ngokuhlukana noma ngama-clamp. Kulokhu, kufanele sigqoke amagilavu ​​okuvikela asebenza.

2. Kulesi simo samandla kazibuthe aqinile, noma iyiphi ingxenye ye-elekthronikhi enengqondo nemitha yokuhlola ingase ishintshwe noma yonakaliswe. Sicela uqinisekise ukuthi ikhompuyutha, isibonisi kanye nemidiya kazibuthe , isibonelo idiski kazibuthe, ikhasethi lekhasethi elizibuthe kanye netheyiphu yokuqopha ividiyo njll., kukude nezingxenye ezisebenza ngozibuthe, ake sithi kude kuno-2m.

3. Ukungqubuzana kwamandla adonsayo phakathi kozibuthe ababili abangapheli kuzoletha ukucwazimula okukhulu. Ngakho-ke, izinto ezivuthayo noma eziqhumayo akufanele zibekwe eduze kwazo.

4. Uma uzibuthe evezwe ku-hydrogen, akuvunyelwe ukusebenzisa ozibuthe unomphela ngaphandle kokumbozwa kokuvikela. Isizathu siwukuthi i-sorption ye-hydrogen izobhubhisa i-microstructure yamagnetic futhi iholele ekwakhiweni kwezakhiwo zamagnetic. Okuwukuphela kwendlela yokuvikela uzibuthe ngempumelelo ukufaka uzibuthe ekeseni bese uwuvala.


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