Zonke imidlalo

UKWAZI KWAMAGNETS

  • Isendlalelo kanye Nomlando
  • Design
  • Ukukhetha kweMagnet
  • surface Ukwelashwa
  • Magnetizing
  • Ububanzi beDimension, ubukhulu nokubekezelelana
  • Umgomo wokuphepha wokusebenza ngesandla

Isendlalelo kanye Nomlando

Amagnethi anaphakade ayingxenye ebalulekile yempilo yanamuhla. Zitholakala ngaphakathi noma ezisetshenziselwa ukukhiqiza cishe yonke inketho yanamuhla yanamuhla. Amagagasi okuqala anaphakade akhiqizwa emadwaleni avela ngokwemvelo abizwa ngokuthi ama-lodestones. La matshe aqale ukufundwa eminyakeni engama-2500 edlule amaShayina kwathi amaGreek, athola leli tshe esifundazweni saseMagnetes, okuyilapho kwaqanjwa khona igama. Kusukela lapho, izakhiwo zezinto ezinamandla kazibuthe ziye zathuthukiswa kakhulu futhi izinsiza zamanje ezinamandla kazibuthe zinamandla ezikhathini eziphindwe kaningi kunamazinga endulo. Igama elithi uzibuthe laphakade livela emandleni wamandla kazibuthe wokubamba isimangalo esisetshenziswe ngemuva kokususwa kusuka kudivayisi kazibuthe. Amadivaysi anjalo angaba ngamanye amandla ombane ahlala unomphelo, ama-electro-magnets noma amakhoyili wensimbi akhokhiswa kagesi kafushane. Amandla abo okubamba imali ekhishwa ngozibuthe kubenza babe lusizo ekubambeni izinto zisezindaweni, ukuguqula ugesi kumandla wesisusa namandla okuphikisana (ama-motors nama-generator), noma ukuthinta ezinye izinto ezilethwe eduze kwabo.


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Design

Ukusebenza kwamandla kazibuthe aphakeme kungumsebenzi wobunjiniyela obungcono bamazibuthe. Kumakhasimende adinga usizo lokuklanywa noma imidwebo eyinkimbinkimbi yesekethe, Ama-QM Ithimba lenjiniyela onolwazi lwesicelo kanye nonjiniyela abanolwazi lokuthengisa insiza kusevisi yakho. QM onjiniyela basebenzisana namakhasimende ukuthuthukisa noma ukuqinisekisa ukusebenza kwemiklamo ekhona futhi bahlakulele imiklamo yamanoveli ekhiqiza imiphumela ekhethekile yamagnetic. QM usungule ukwakheka kobunhloli obunamandla obukhulu, umfaniswano noma ukwakheka ngokukhethekile ubuzibuthe obuvame ukufaka esikhundleni sombuso wamazibuthe we-sumky-nageji ongagugi kanye nemiklamo kazibuthe engapheli. Amakhasimende ayazithemba lapho i-hey iletha umqondo oyinkimbinkimbi noma umbono omusha wokuthi QM uzohlangabezana naleyo nselelo ngokudweba kusuka eminyakeni eyi-10 yobuchwepheshe bozibuthe obufakazelwe. QM inabantu, imikhiqizo nobuchwepheshe obusebenzisa odonsa.


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Ukukhetha kweMagnet

Ukukhetha kwe-Magnet kuzo zonke izinhlelo zokusebenza kufanele kucubungule lonke umjikelezo kazibuthe nendawo ezungezile. Lapho i-Alnico kufanelekile, usayizi wamazibuthe ungancishiswa uma kungaba nokufaka uzibuthe ngemuva komhlangano kokujikeleza ngozibuthe. Uma kusetshenziswe ngokuzimele kwezinye izingxenye zesekethe, njengasezisetshenzisweni zokuphepha, ubude obufanele bokulinganisa ubukhulu (okuhlobene ne-coefficient coeffnty) kumele kube kukhulu ngokwanele ukwenza ukuthi uzibuthe ukuthi usebenze ngaphezulu kweedolo endaweni yakhe yesibili yokubumbana yedignetnet. Ngezicelo ezibucayi, i-Alnico magnets ingahle ilinganiswe kunani elisunguliwe le-flux kwabantu.

Umkhiqizo womkhiqizo we-coercivity ophansi uzwela emiphumeleni yokudonsela phansi ngenxa yamandla kazibuthe angaphandle, ukushaqeka, kanye namazinga okushisa wohlelo lokusebenza. Ngezicelo ezibucayi, i-Alnico magnets ingafakwa ekushiseni ukuze inciphise le miphumela Kunamakilasi amane wemilingo yesimanje yezentengiso, ngalinye ngokususelwa ekwakhekeni kwezinto. Ngaphakathi nesigaba ngasinye kunomndeni wamamaki anezindawo zawo zozibuthe. Lezi zigaba ezijwayelekile yilezi:

  • I-Neodymium Iron Boron
  • Samarium Cobalt
  • sobumba
  • Alnico

I-NdFeB neSmCo ngokubambisana baziwa ngokuthi ama-Rare Earth magnets ngoba womabili akhiwa ngezinto ezivela eqenjini le-Rare Earth group of element. I-Neodymium Iron Boron (okwenziwe ngokujwayelekile i-Nd2Fe14B, evame ukufushaniswa neNdFeB) ukwengezwa kwakamuva kakhulu kwezentengiso emndenini wezinto zamanje zamazibuthe. Emazingeni okushisa asekamelweni, odonsa ngama-NdFeB bakhombisa izakhiwo eziphakeme kakhulu zazo zonke izinto ezisetshenziswa ngozibuthe. ISamarium Cobalt yenziwa ezingomeni ezimbili: iSm1Co5 neSm2Co17 - kuvame ukubizwa ngezinhlobo zeSmCo 1: 5 noma iSmCo 2:17. Izinhlobo ezingama-2:17, ezinamanani aphezulu we-Hci, zinikeza ukuzinza okukhulu kwendalo kunezinhlobo 1: 5. I-Ceramic, eyaziwa nangokuthi i-Ferrite, odonsa (i-general composition i-BaFe2O3 noma i-SrFe2O3) ithengisiwe kusukela ngawo-1950s futhi iyaqhubeka nokusetshenziswa kakhulu namuhla ngenxa yezindleko zazo eziphansi. Uhlobo olukhethekile lukazibuthe kaCeramic luyizinto "eziFihlekayo", ezenziwe ngesibopho se-Ceramic powder esiguqweni esiguquguqukayo. Amagagnethi e-Alnico (okwenziwe ngokujwayelekile i-Al-Ni-Co) athengiswa ngawo-1930s futhi asasetshenziswa kakhulu nanamuhla.

Lezi zinto zokwakha zilingana ngobubanzi bezinto ezahlukahlukene ezihlangabezana nezidingo ezahlukahlukene zohlelo lokusebenza. Lokhu okulandelayo kuhloselwe ukunikeza ukubuka konke okubanzi kodwa okusebenzayo kokubhekelwa kwezinto okufanele kucatshangelwe ekukhetheni impahla efanelekile, ibanga, ukuma, nosayizi kazibuthe wohlelo oluthile. Ishadi elingezansi libonisa amanani ajwayelekile wezimpawu ezibalulekile zamamaki akhethiwe wezinto ezahlukahlukene zokuqhathanisa. La magugu azoxoxwa ngokuningiliziwe ezigabeni ezilandelayo.

Iziqhathaniso zeMagnet Material

Material
Grade
Br
Hc
Hci
BH max
T max (Deg c) *
NdFeB
39H
12,800
12,300
21,000
40
150
USmCo
26
10,500
9,200
10,000
26
300
NdFeB
B10N
6,800
5,780
10,300
10
150
Alnico
5
12,500
640
640
5.5
540
sobumba
8
3,900
3,200
3,250
3.5
300
Flexible
1
1,500
1,380
1,380
0.6
100

* I-T max (isilinganiso sokushisa esiphezulu esisebenzayo) siyireferensi kuphela. Ukushisa okuphezulu okusebenzayo kwanoma iyiphi uzibuthe kuncike kwisifunda okusebenza kuyo uzibuthe.


«Buyisela phezulu

surface Ukwelashwa

Ama-magnets angadinga ukuhlanganiswa ngokuya ngesicelo esenzelwe bona. Ukuhlanganisa ama-magnets kuthuthukisa ukubukeka, ukumelana nokugqwala, ukuvikelwa ekugqokeni futhi kungahle kufaneleke kwizicelo ezimeni zegumbi elihlanzekile.
ISamarium Cobalt, izinto ezisetshenziselwa i-Alnico azihambelani nokugqwala, futhi azidingi ukuthi ziboshelwe ngokumelene nokugqwala. I-Alnico yenzelwe kalula izimfanelo zezimonyo.
Amagnethi e-NdFeB atheleka kalula ekugqumeni futhi avikeleke ngale ndlela. Kunezinhlobonhlobo zezingubo zokugqoka ezilungele imagnethi yaphakade, Hhayi zonke izinhlobo zokupheka zizokulungela yonke impahla noma i-geometry yamagnetic, futhi ukukhetha kokugcina kuzoncika kwisicelo nendawo ezungezile. Inketho eyengeziwe ukufaka uzibuthe endaweni yokufaka yangaphandle ukuvikela ukugqwala nomonakalo.

Ama-Coatings atholakalayo

Uhlaka

esinemthombo

Ubukhulu (Microns)

Color

Resistance

Ukususwa


1

Isiliva Grey

Ukuvikelwa Kwesikhashana

nickel

Ni + Ni

10-20

Isiliva elikhanyayo

Okuhle ngokumelene noMswakama

Ni + Cu + Ni

Zinc

Zn

8-20

Bright Blue

Kuhle Ngokuphikisana Nosawoti

C-Zn

Shinny Umbala

Kuhle Kakhulu Ngokuchasene neSawoti Spray

Tin

Ni + Cu + Sn

15-20

Silver

Ephakeme Ngokumelana Nomswakama

Gold

Ni + Cu + Au

10-20

Gold

Ephakeme Ngokumelana Nomswakama

Copper

Ni + Cu

10-20

Gold

Ukuvikelwa Kwesikhashana

I-Epoxy

I-Epoxy

15-25

Mnyama, Bomvu, Mpunga

Kuhle Ukulwa Nomswakama
I-Spray Spray

Ni + Cu + Epoxy

I-Zn + Epoxy

Chemical

Ni

10-20

Isiliva Grey

Kuhle Ukulwa Nomswakama

Parylene

Parylene

5-20

Grey

Kuhle Ukulwa Nomswakama, Isifutho Sosawoti. Ephakeme Ngokumelana Nezixazululo, Amagesi, isikhunta kanye neBacteria.
Kuvunyelwe i-FDA.


«Buyisela phezulu

Magnetizing

Uzibuthe waphakade ohlinzekwa ngaphansi kwezimo ezimbili, Magnetized noma awunazibuthe, imvamisa ayimakiwe ubukhazikhazi bawo. Uma umsebenzisi edinga, singamaka ubumbana ngezindlela okuvunyelwene ngazo. Lapho kulungiswa i-oda, umsebenzisi kufanele azise isimo sokuhlinzekwa futhi uma kudingeka uphawu lwekhola.

Inkambu yamandla kazibuthe yaphakade ihlobene nohlobo lwamandla kazibuthe ongapheliyo namandla ayo aphakathi nendawo aphikisayo. Uma uzibuthe zidinga i-magnetization kanye ne-demagnetization, sicela uxhumane nathi futhi ucele ukwesekwa kwenqubo.

Kunezindlela ezimbili zokufaka uzibuthe: Inkambu yeDC nokukhipha amandla kazibuthe.

Kunezindlela ezintathu zokunciphisa amandla kazibuthe: i-demagnetization ngokushisa iyindlela ekhethekile yokwenza inqubo. demagnetization emkhakheni we-AC. I-Demagnetization emkhakheni weDC. Lokhu kucela amandla kazibuthe anamandla kakhulu nekhono eliphakeme loku demagnetization.

Ijamo lejometri kanye nesiqondisi sezibuko sezibuthe ezingapheli: ngokomqondo, sikhiqiza uzibuthe waphakade ezinhlotsheni ezahlukahlukene. Imvamisa, kufaka phakathi ibhlokhi, idiski, indandatho, ingxenye njll. Umfanekiso ophelele wenkomba kazibuko ungezansi:

Imikhombandlela Magnetization
(Imidwebo Ebonisa Imikhombandlela Ejwayelekile Yokwenza Man)

kususelwa kubukhulu

ithambekele ngokuqondile

ezungezwe izigaba ngezigaba

kuthambekele ekuphindaphindeni kamuva

Ukuphindaphindwa okugxilwe kuzigaba kububanzi obungaphandle *

phindaphinda kumakhompiyutha ngobuso obubodwa

ithambekele emisebeni

kuthambekele kububanzi *

Ukuphindaphindwa okugxilwe kuzigaba kububanzi obungaphakathi *

konke kutholakala njenge-isotropic noma i-anisotropic

* itholakala kuphela ku-isotropic nezinto ezithile ze-anisotropic kuphela


ithambekele emisebeni

okugxiliselwe ku-diametrical


«Buyisela phezulu

Ububanzi beDimension, ubukhulu nokubekezelelana

Ngaphandle kobukhulu ekuqondeni kwamandla kazibuthe, ubukhulu bezibalo zaphakade abudluli kuma-50mm, okukhawulelwe yinkambu yokuqondisa kanye nemishini yokona. Ubukhulu kusiqondisi se-unmagnetization bufika ku-100mm.

Ukubekezelela kuvame + +-- 0.05 - +/- 0.10mm.

Isimangalo: Ezinye izinhlobo zingenziwa ngokwamasampula ekhasimende noma ukuphrinta okwesibhakabhaka

ring
I-Diameter yangaphandle
Ububanzi Inner
Ubukhulu
Isikhulu
100.00mm
95.00m
50.00mm
Minimum
3.80mm
1.20mm
0.50mm
disc
ububanzi
Ubukhulu
Isikhulu
100.00mm
50.00mm
Minimum
1.20mm
0.50mm
Block
ubude
ububanzi
Ubukhulu
Isikhulu100.00mm
95.00mm
50.00mm
Minimum3.80mm
1.20mm
0.50mm
Ingxenye ye-Arc
Outer Radius
Imisakazo yangaphakathi
Ubukhulu
Isikhulu75mm
65mm
50mm
Minimum1.9mm
0.6mm
0.5mm



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Umgomo wokuphepha wokusebenza ngesandla

1. Amagagnethi anaphakade anamandla kazibuthe aqinile aheha insimbi kanye nezinye izindaba eziwazungezile. Ngaphansi kwesimo esijwayelekile, opharetha wencwadi kufanele aqaphele kakhulu ukugwema noma yimuphi umonakalo. Ngenxa yamandla kazibuthe anamandla, uzibuthe omkhulu osondele kubo uthatha ubungozi bomonakalo. Abantu bahlala becubungula la magnethi ngokwehlukana noma ngama-clamp. Kulokhu, kufanele sengeze amagilavu ​​okuvikela asebenza.

2. Kulesi simo sezwe elinamandla kazibuthe, noma iyiphi ingxenye enengqondo ye-elekthronikhi nemitha yokuhlola ingashintshwa noma ilinyazwe. Sicela uqinisekise ukuthi ikhompiyutha, isibonisi kanye nemithombo yezindaba kazibuthe, ngokwesibonelo i-magnetic disc, i-tape yamakhasethi enethambo kanye nevidiyo yokurekhoda i-video njll, zikude kakhulu nezinto ezisebenza ngogesi, zisho kude kune-2m.

3. Ukushayisana kwethonya lamandla ahehayo phakathi kwamagnetic amabili anaphakade kuzoletha ukubabazeka okukhulu. Ngakho-ke, izindaba ezivuthayo noma eziqhumayo akufanele zibekwe eduze kwabo.

4. Lapho uzibuthe uvulelwa i-hydrogen, kuyenqatshelwa ukusebenzisa amazibuthe unomphela ngaphandle kokufaka isivikelo. Isizathu ukuthi i-sorption ye-hydrogen izokonakalisa amandla kazibuthe bese iholele ekwakhiweni kwezakhiwo zamandla kazibuthe. Ukuphela kwendlela yokuvikela uzibuthe ngokuphumelelayo ukufaka uzibuthe esimweni bese uyisayina.


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