Dukkan Bayanai

BAYANIN MAGNETS

  • Bayan Fage da Tarihi
  • Design
  • Zaɓin Magnet
  • surface Jiyya
  • Magnetizing
  • Matsakaicin Rage, Girman da haƙuri
  • Tsarin aminci don aiki na aiki

Bayan Fage da Tarihi

Permanent magnets are a vital part of modern life. They are found in or used to produce almost every modern convenience today. The first permanent magnets were produced from naturally occurring rocks called lodestones. These stones were first studied over 2500 years ago by the Chinese and subsequently by the Greeks, who obtained the stone from the province of Magnetes, from which the material got its name. Since then, the properties of magnetic materials have been profoundly improved and todays permanent magnet materials are many hundreds of times stronger than the magnets of antiquity. The term permanent magnet comes from the ability of the magnet to hold an induced magnetic charge after it is removed from the magnetizing device. Such devices may be other strongly magnetized permanent magnets, electro-magnets or coils of wire that are briefly charged with electricity. Their ability to hold a magnetic charge makes them useful for holding objects in place, converting electricity to motive power and vice versa (motors and generators), or affecting other objects brought near them.


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Design

Babban aikin magnetic wani aiki ne na injiniyan magnetic mafi kyau. Ga abokan cinikin da ke buƙatar taimakon ƙira ko ƙirar kewaye, QM's ofungiyar kwararrun injiniyoyin aikace-aikacen injiniya da kuma masaniyar siyarwar masaniyar filin ke cikin aikinku. QM injiniyoyi suna aiki tare da abokan ciniki don haɓaka ko tabbatar da ƙirar da take akwai kuma haɓaka ƙirar littattafai waɗanda suke haifar da tasirin magnetic na musamman. QM ya haɓaka ƙirar maganaɗisu waɗanda ke magana da karfi waɗanda ke ba da ƙarfi mai ƙarfi, suttura ko filayen maganadisu na musamman waɗanda ke maye gurbin manyan maganadisu da ƙarancin maggi da ƙirar magnet mai ɗorewa. Abokan ciniki suna da tabbaci lokacin da suka kawo wata ma'ana mai rikitarwa ko sabon ra'ayi wanda QM zai iya fuskantar wannan kalubalen ta hanyar zane daga shekaru 10 na tabbatar da kwarewar magnetic. QM yana da mutane, samfurori da fasaha waɗanda ke sanya ƙaho zuwa aiki.


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Zaɓin Magnet

Zaɓin Magnet don duk aikace-aikacen dole ne la'akari da da'irar magnetic da yanayin gaba ɗaya. Inda Alnico ya dace, za'a iya rage girman girman magnet idan za'a iya magnetizing bayan taro a cikin daurin magnetic. Idan ana amfani dashi mai zaman kansa daga sauran abubuwanda ke kewaye, kamar yadda yake cikin aikace-aikacen tsaro, tsayin daka zuwa diamita (yana da alaƙa da haƙiƙa) dole ne ya zama ya isa ya sa magnet ɗin ta yi aiki a sama da gwiwoyi a cikin tsarinta na quadrant demagnetization na biyu. Don mahimman aikace-aikacen, alnico na iya kasancewa kusantuwa ga ingantaccen ƙimar ƙazamar yawaitar ƙima.

Samfurin ƙananan ƙarfin aiki shine ƙwarewa ga lalacewar abubuwa saboda magnetic waje, girgiza, da yanayin aikace-aikacen. Don aikace-aikace masu mahimmanci, maganadisun Alnico na iya zama zafin jiki ya daidaita don rage waɗannan tasirin Akwai rukuni huɗu na maganadisun kasuwanci na zamani, kowannensu dangane da kayan aikinsu. A cikin kowane aji akwai dangi masu maki tare da abubuwan maganadisu. Wadannan manyan azuzuwan sune:

  • Neodymium Iron Boron
  • Samarium Cobalt
  • yumbu
  • Alnico

NdFeB da SmCo gabaɗaya ana kiran su Rare Duniya maganadisu saboda dukkansu sun haɗu da abubuwa daga Rare Earth group of elements. Neodymium Iron Boron (babban abin kirki Nd2Fe14B, sau da yawa ana taƙaita shi zuwa NdFeB) shine sabon kasuwancin kasuwanci na kwanan nan ga dangin kayan maganadisu na zamani. A yanayin zafi na ɗaki, maganadisu na NdFeB suna nuna kyawawan kaddarorin duk kayan maganadisu. Samarium Cobalt an kera shi ne a cikin abubuwa biyu: Sm1Co5 da Sm2Co17 - galibi ana kiran su da nau'ikan SmCo 1: 5 ko SmCo 2:17. Nau'ukan 2:17, tare da ƙimar Hci mafi girma, suna ba da kwanciyar hankali mafi girma fiye da nau'ikan 1: 5. Yumbu, wanda aka fi sani da Ferrite, maganadiso (babban haɗin BaFe2O3 ko SrFe2O3) an sayar dasu tun daga shekarun 1950 kuma ana ci gaba da amfani dasu sosai a yau saboda ƙarancin kuɗinsu. Wani nau'i na musamman na maganadisun maganadisu shine "Mai sassauƙa" abu, wanda aka sanya shi ta hanyar haɗa yumbu foda a cikin madaidaicin abin ɗaure. Maganin Alnico (babban haɗin Al-Ni-Co) an kasuwanci ne a cikin 1930s kuma har yanzu ana amfani dashi sosai a yau.

Waɗannan kayan aikin sun ƙunshi kewayon kaddarorin da suka dace da buƙatun aikace-aikace iri-iri. Abubuwan da aka bi aka tsara sune don bayar da fa'ida amma bayyani mai zurfi game da abubuwan da dole ne a yi la’akari da su don zaben kayan da ya dace, aji, tsari, da kuma girman magnet don takamaiman aiki. Shafin da ke ƙasa yana nuna ƙimar halaye na manyan halaye don zaɓin maki na kayan abubuwa daban-daban don kwatantawa. Za a tattauna waɗannan halaye dalla-dalla a cikin sassan da ke gaba.

Kwatancen Magnet Material

Material
Grade
Br
Hc
Hci
BH max
T max (Deg c) *
NdFeB
39H
12,800
12,300
21,000
40
150
SmCo
26
10,500
9,200
10,000
26
300
NdFeB
B10N
6,800
5,780
10,300
10
150
Alnico
5
12,500
640
640
5.5
540
yumbu
8
3,900
3,200
3,250
3.5
300
m
1
1,500
1,380
1,380
0.6
100

* T max (matsakaicin aiki zazzabi mai aiki) don kawai kawai. Matsakaicin aikin zafin jiki na kowane magnet ya dogara da kewaye da magnet ɗin yana aiki.


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surface Jiyya

Magnets na iya buƙatar a rufe shi dangane da aikace-aikacen da aka nufa su. Rufe maganadisu yana inganta bayyanar, juriya na lalata, kariya daga sutura kuma yana iya dacewa da aikace-aikace a cikin ɗakin tsabtace ɗakin.
Samarium Cobalt, kayan Alnico ba su da tsayayye, kuma ba sa buƙatar mai ruɓi da lalata. Ana iya sauƙaƙe Alnico don halayen kwaskwarima.
Tsirrai na NdFeB suna iya kamuwa da cuta musamman ga lalata kuma galibi ana kiyaye su ta wannan hanyar. Akwai nau'ikan sutura iri-iri da suka dace da abubuwan banmamaki na dindindin, Ba kowane nau'in suturar ba ne zai dace da kowane kayan abu ko kuma nau'ikan magnet, kuma zaɓi na ƙarshe zai dogara ne akan aikace-aikace da muhalli. Optionarin zaɓi shine don ɗauka gidan magnet a cikin wani shinge na waje don hana lalata da lalacewa.

Akwai Kayan Aiki

Su karairayi

shafi

Lokacin farin ciki (Microns)

Launi

Resistance

Passivation


1

Silver Gray

Kariya na Gwiwa

nickel

Ni + Ni

10-20

Azurfa mai haske

Madalla da zafi

Ni + Cu + Ni

tutiya

Zn

8-20

Bright Blue

Kyakkyawan ta Salarfafa Salt

C-Zn

Launi mai haske

Madalla da Bishiyar Salt

Tin

Ni + Cu + Sn

15-20

Silver

Mafifici kan Danshi

Gold

Ni + Cu + Au

10-20

Gold

Mafifici kan Danshi

Copper

Ni + Cu

10-20

Gold

Kariya na Gwiwa

Epoxy

Epoxy

15-25

Baƙi, Ja, Gashi

Madalla da Gumi
Gishirin Fesa

Ni + Cu + Epoxy

Zane + Epoxy

Chemical

Ni

10-20

Silver Gray

Madalla da Gumi

Karin

Karin

5-20

Grey

Madalla da Girman kai, Gishirin Tsage. Manyan Againstarfin Soyayya, Gyada, Fungi da ƙwayoyin cuta.
 An karɓi FDA.


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Magnetizing

Magnet na dindindin da aka kawo a karkashin yanayi biyu, Magnetized ko babu magnetized, yawanci ba'a yiwa alamarta ba. Idan mai amfani ya buƙaci, zamu iya yiwa alama alama ta hanyar da aka amince da ita. Lokacin shigar da oda, mai amfani ya sanar da yanayin wadatar kuma idan alamar polarity ya zama dole.

Filin magnetization na magnet ɗin dindindin yana da dangantaka da nau'in kayan magana na dindindin da ƙarfin tilasta shi. Idan magnet ɗin yana buƙatar magnetization da demagnetization, don Allah a tuntuɓe mu kuma nemi goyon bayan fasaha.

Akwai hanyoyi guda biyu don ɗaukar magneti: filin DC da bugun magnetic magnetic.

Akwai hanyoyi guda uku don lalata magnet: demagnetization da zafi shine ƙirar tsari na musamman. demagnetization a cikin AC filin. Demagnetization a cikin filin DC. Wannan yana neman karfi da karfi na magnetic filin da kuma fasaha mai zurfin fada.

Tsarin joometry da magnetization na magnet din dindindin: bisa manufa, muna samar da magnet din dindindin ta fuskoki daban-daban. Yawancin lokaci, yana haɗa da toshe, diski, zobe, sashi da dai sauransu Cikakken hoton jagorar magnetization yana ƙasa:

Kwatance Magnetization
(Jajalai dake nuna Hanyoyin Hanyar Hanyar Canji)

daidaitacce ta hanyar kauri

axially daidaitacce

axially daidaitacce a cikin sassan

daidaitacce a gefe daya da yawa akan fuska daya

multipole daidaitacce a cikin sassan akan waje diamita *

multipole daidaitacce a cikin sassan kan fuska daya

radially daidaitacce *

daidaitacce ta hanyar diamita *

Multipole daidaitacce a cikin sassan akan ciki diamita *

duk ana amfani dasu azaman isotropic ko kayan anisotropic

* akwai kawai a isotropic da wasu kayan anisotropic kawai


radially daidaitacce

daidaitaccen lu'u-lu'u


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Matsakaicin Rage, Girman da haƙuri

Ban da girma a cikin tsarin magnetization, matsakaicin girman girman magnet ɗin dindindin bai wuce 50mm ba, wanda aka iyakance shi ta hanyar daidaituwa da kayan aikin sintiri. Girman a cikin yanayin unmagnetization ya kai 100mm.

Abun haƙuri shine yawanci +/- 0.05 - +/- 0.10mm.

Jawabi: Sauran siffofi za'a iya kera su gwargwadon samfurin abokin ciniki ko shuɗin bugawa

zobe
Ƙananan Diamita
Inner diamita
kauri
Maximum
100.00mm
95.00m
50.00mm
mafi qarancin
3.80mm
1.20mm
0.50mm
Disc
diamita
kauri
Maximum
100.00mm
50.00mm
mafi qarancin
1.20mm
0.50mm
Block
Length
nisa
kauri
Maximum100.00mm
95.00mm
50.00mm
mafi qarancin3.80mm
1.20mm
0.50mm
Arc-kashi
Odi Radius
Radius na ciki
kauri
Maximum75mm
65mm
50mm
mafi qarancin1.9mm
0.6mm
0.5mm



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Tsarin aminci don aiki na aiki

1. Magnetized magnetized na dindindin tare da ƙaƙƙarfan filin maganaɗisu yana jan ƙarfe da sauran maganganun magnetic kewaye da su sosai. A karkashin yanayin gama gari, mai aikin mai kulawa yakamata yayi taka tsantsan don gujewa duk wani lalacewa. Sakamakon ƙarfin ƙwaƙwalwa mai ƙarfi, babban maganadisu kusa da su yana ɗaukar haɗarin lalacewa. Mutane koyaushe suna aiwatar da waɗannan maganganu daban ko ta killace. A wannan yanayin, ya kamata mu adana safofin hannu na kariya a cikin aiki.

2. A cikin wannan yanayin magnetic mai ƙarfi, kowane ɓangaren lantarki mai ma'ana da mitar gwaji na iya canzawa ko lalacewa. Da fatan za a iya tabbatar da cewa komputa, nuni da kafofin watsa labarai na Magnetic, misali na'urar magana ta Magnetic disiki, tef ɗin kaset da faifan rikodin bidiyo da sauransu, suni nesa da abubuwan magnetized, in ji nesa da 2m.

3. Haɗar da jan hankalin sojoji tsakanin manyan magogi biyu na dindindin, zai kawo haske mai yawa. Sabili da haka, abubuwan wuta ko abubuwan fashewa bai kamata a sanya su a kusa da su ba.

4. Lokacin da aka fallasa magnet zuwa hydrogen, an haramta amfani da magnet na dindindin ba tare da rufin kariya ba. Dalilin shi ne cewa sihirin hydrogen zai ruguza microstructure na magnet kuma zai haifar da lalata abubuwan magnetic. Hanya daya tilo don kare magnet yadda yakamata shine a rufe magnet a cikin akwati sannan a rufe shi.


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